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Indian society has a long history of the civil based cultural concept of daan and seva. This is why volunteer work in India exist to form a long time. There are organizations that have Volunteer work spirit and non-profit making objective. The activity done from these organisations were for cultural promotion. And also for the education, health, and natural disaster relief. And they were started as early as the medieval era. There were many such organisations formed during British rule. They were working to improve social welfare and literacy of the people. It was of the 19th-century nationalist consciousness spread across the India. And these organisations were the primary focus of such sociopolitical movements. And hence many organisations form during this period of time some of them are still in work.
The Societies Registration Act (SRA) was approved in 1860. This act was to get a legal status for these growing NGOs throughout the country. The SRA is still the relevant legislation for NGOs in India. But, most of the government of states in India have modified the original act.
During the time of Independence. Gandhiji had a severe concerned with the problems of people. And the mindset that people have with them. All this problem were simultaneously going with the problem of Independance. Along with the war against the British rule. he also wanted to eliminate the social evils from the country. He wanted to awaken the people of India. Tell them to come out of the old traditions like untouchability, caste discrimination. also, there were many problems. Like the superiority for the landholding caste. and inferiority for the general backwards classes. To achieve the goal and vision of Gandhiji. many volunteer organizations were formed under his influence.
After the Independance in India there was a significant growth of NGOs. there was a great number of NGOs opened. At that time Democracy was established. And people now had started to understand the meaning of freedom of speech. They now got the values of the charm of equality and the value of humanity and brotherhood. Also, government was playing a crucial role. Government started planning for the development of India. They launched many schemes of Community Development Programme on the Green Revolution.
After the Independance, India started to grow. India accelerated the processes of industrialization and urbanization. The expansion of education and politicization were also increased. The other impactful areas where democratization and modernization. By all these processes, people got awakened. And they were sensitive to the existing inequalities. The inequalities like economic , gender inequality and inhuman behaviour. They were now aware of caste inequalities and untouchability. the other social evils, like child marriage, child labour, restriction on widow marriage. were started to change. In these all parts NGO played a crucial role.
There were many problems occurred in the rural area. The main reason of these problems were Industrialization and urbanization. There was a rural-urban migration that cause imbalance in the rural labour division. There were many cities that were over urbanised. This led to the expansion of slum area. Also many other problems were cause in these cities. Problems like urban unemployment, pollution and depletion of natural resources. The garbage disposal was also a big problem. This all led to environmental Imbalance.
Thus, at the time of Independence there were hundreds of problems. These problems were emerged for the citizens of India. These citizens started organizing themselves to work for their solution. They either started solving problem by their own personal contribution. Also Sometimes pressurizing the government to solve their problem. This was the time, thousands of NGOs have thus emerged in India. They started making significant contributions to the processes of development of society. And helping people get rid of their problems.
These NGOs were doing the task of mobilizing and conscientization the people. They have a specific target groups of people for whom they were working. Either it was for the women, children, agricultural labourers or construction workers. they can be any one. Some of these NGOs were also working for the social castaways like widows, devadasis or also the prisoners. They used to sincerely believe in the process they were working. Some of them also targeted the rural area to work. They started awakening the people. Either it is by the education or by knowing their rights. Also they used to make them awake about the legal literacy.